Aviva Buyers Floor Lease GP Ltd and Anor v Williams and Ors – UKSCBlog

Aviva Buyers Floor Lease GP Ltd and Anor v Williams and Ors – UKSCBlog

On this submit, Sarah Collins, Senior Affiliate within the Actual Property workforce at CMS, previews the case of Aviva Buyers Floor Lease GP Ltd and Anor v Williams and Ors, which is scheduled to be heard by the UK Supreme Court docket on 8 December 2022.

Factual Background

The respondents on this enchantment (Aviva) personal the freehold of a block of flats in Southsea (the “Block”). The appellants every personal a flat within the Block on an extended lease. By advantage of the leases, Aviva are required to keep up the construction and customary elements of the Block, while the flat homeowners are required to contribute in direction of the price of the identical by way of the service cost mechanism.

Every lease units out the proportion of the upkeep prices that the leaseholder ought to pay, that are expressed as a proportion or such different proportion “because the Landlord might in any other case fairly decide”.

Part 27A(6) of the Landlord and Tenant Act 1985 (the “1985 Act”) gives:

“(6) An settlement by the tenant of a dwelling (apart from a post-dispute arbitration settlement) is void in as far as it purports to supply for a willpower—

(a) particularly
(b) on explicit proof

of any query which often is the topic of an utility beneath subsection (1) or (3).”

The issues at subsections (1) and (3) relate to the Tribunal’s jurisdiction to find out whether or not a service cost is payable and its quantity.

In an earlier determination of the Higher Tribunal (Windermere Marina Village Ltd v Wild [2014] UKUT 163 (LC)), it was held that it’s throughout the jurisdiction of the First-tier Tribunal (the “FTT”) to find out apportionments of expenditure beneath part 27A(1) of the 1985 Act, such that lease clauses purporting to permit a landlord or different celebration to find out the proportion of service cost void. This determination was afterward permitted by the Court docket of Enchantment in Oliver v Sheffield Metropolis Council [2017] EWCA Civ 225.

Part 27A(4) of the 1985 Act prevents a celebration from making use of to the suitable Tribunal in circumstances the place the subject material has been agreed. Given a hard and fast proportion is written into the lease, it follows that the proportion has been agreed and accordingly the FTT has no jurisdiction to find out it. Aviva v Williamsnonetheless, offers with a hybrid clause such that it expresses a proportion (which might deprive the FTT of jurisdiction), but in addition permits for the owner to find out a proportion (which solely the FTT has jurisdiction to resolve). Aviva have been demanding service expenses in proportions which differ to the fastened proportions for a number of years.

The query earlier than the Supreme Court docket is subsequently the right interpretation of the clause containing the proportion. Is the impact of part 27A(6) of the 1985 Act to take away the variable factor (ensuing within the fastened percentages being the one proportions that may be utilized) or is it solely the half regarding the owner’s willpower that turns into void (ensuing within the FTT having jurisdiction to differ the proportions instead of Aviva)?

Appellate Historical past

At first occasion, the FTT held that it retained a jurisdiction to find out the proportions, whereas the Higher Tribunal decided that the availability for landlord willpower was eliminated in its entirety such that the fastened percentages wanted to be charged.

The Resolution of the Court docket of Enchantment

The Court docket of Enchantment agreed with the FTT. Having thought-about Windermere and subsequent circumstances, it reiterated that part 27A(6) of the 1985 Act is anxious “with not more than eradicating the owner’s position (or that of one other third celebration) from the choice making course of, so as to not deprive the FTT of jurisdiction beneath Part 27A(1)”. The statutory goal is glad if the owner’s position is transferred to the FTT (versus fully eliminating the clause). The Court docket of Enchantment additionally expressed a view that there isn’t any difficulty in precept in retaining a versatile strategy to service cost proportions, offering that choices as apportionments are taken by the FTT.

It made its determination, the Court docket of Enchantment reiterated that the Higher Tribunal’s determination had the impact of depriving the FTT of all jurisdiction over the apportionment of service expenses, which was not what part 27A(6) of the 1985 Act had supposed to attain.


When granted, most residential flat leases are for a time period in extra of 99 years, some so long as 999 years. It’s subsequently possible that in the course of the time period, circumstances might change the place some or all events would profit from a reallocation of service cost proportions. With the recognition of rooftop improvement, for instance, the place further flats are constructed on prime of these which initially existed, it could appear honest within the circumstances that further homeowners contribute to the service expenses and thus cut back the contributions of present homeowners. If the Supreme Court docket permits the leaseholders’ enchantment, the flexibleness to reallocate contributions will probably be faraway from comparable leases. There are solely restricted circumstances the place proportions may in any other case be diversified exterior of the lease phrases (for instance, if the odds don’t add as much as 100% an utility may be made beneath the Landlord and Tenant Act 1987), which means change of circumstances can’t simply be accounted for.

A level of flexibility is a great tool in addressing any imbalance attributable to a change of circumstances. In fact, nonetheless, there are circumstances the place leaseholders might not agree with a reallocation and part 27A(6) of the 1985 Act and its subsequent interpretation in Windermereaccommodates helpful safety for these leaseholders. Aviva v Williams will affirm whether or not a de facto the power to differ the service cost proportions can nonetheless be taken benefit of by landlords or leaseholders alike (topic to willpower by the FTT), or whether or not the fastened percentages agreed, generally a few years in the past, are to be retained.

Whereas the leaseholders on this case are arguing in favor of a hard and fast proportion, there’ll in fact be conditions the place leaseholders are in favor of a reallocation (for instance, if it leads to a discount of their expenses). Both manner, clarification from the Supreme Court docket will probably be welcomed.

tags: 2021/0059, 8 December 2022, landlord, Lord Briggs, Lord Kitchin, Lord Reed, Lord Richards, Lord Gross sales, property, supreme court docket, tenant

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