A COMPETITION LAW SCRUTINY – The RMLNLU Regulation Overview Weblog

By: Tapamoy Ghose


HDFC Ltd, a mortgage lender, introduced a merger with HDFC Financial institution on April 4, 2022. Based on HDFC Financial institution, the merger is topic to numerous statutory and regulatory approvals, together with these from the Competitors Fee of India (CCI), the Nationwide Firm Regulation Tribunal (NCLT), different relevant authorities, and the businesses’ respective shareholders and collectors.

HDFC Ltd is India’s main housing finance firm, with unparalleled relationships, scale, and underwriting experience within the housing sector. However, with over 68 million clients, 6,342 branches, and a complete portfolio of credit score, legal responsibility, and distribution choices, HDFC Financial institution is the main non-public sector financial institution with a deep buyer base developed over a number of many years. After this merger, the proposed entity could have a complete asset base of roughly Rupees 18 lakh crores.


When an enterprise, which is already in a dominant place in a related market, engages in actions to remove different opponents or discourage future opponents from getting into the market, it’s known as abuse of dominance. Three components are required to determine an abuse of dominance: a dominant endeavor, a related market, and an anti-competitive conduct.

The dominance of an enterprise (on this case, HDFC Financial institution) can solely be established throughout the boundaries of the related market. The CCI held in Shri Pravahan Mohanty v. HDFC Financial institution Restricted that figuring out the related product market is vital when figuring out a dominant place.

Based on Part 2

  • HDFC Bson: A Classic Case of Dominance

Clarification (a) beneath Sec. 4(2) defines “dominant place” as “a place of power loved by an enterprise within the related market in India that permits it to function independently of aggressive aggressive forces prevailing within the related market; or have an effect on its opponents, shoppers, or the related market in its favour.” To find out an enterprise’s dominant place, the Fee could take into account the components set out in Part 19(4) of the Act: market share, financial energy or entry barrier and so forth.

The entity’s financial energy is an element of dominance below S. 19(4)(d) of the Act. An endeavor’s financial efficiency could also be an element indicating dominance. The EU Fee in Server Thought-about Servier’s substantial ‘financial rents’ to be direct proof of its dominance. Following the identical, in instances comparable to Michelins, an entity’s monetary energy and profitability have been held to be an element of dominance. Coming to the profitability side, within the monetary 12 months of 2022 (FY 22), HDFC financial institution recorded a revenue of practically 38150 Crore, the best of all of the banks in India (public sector banks and personal sector banks mixed). It should be famous that, up to now, within the EU, the Fee has primarily based the discovering of dominance on the profitability of the entity, notably in Intel.

Shifting to the monetary power of the entity, HDFC Financial institution scores excessive once more. A examine by Normal and Poor, a famend international score company, confirmed that the Financial institution poses ample capital buffer and tier 1 capital ratio, in addition to an array of property superior to every other competitor within the trade. This is a sign of the robust monetary power which HDFC at present enjoys.

Final however not least, the link-up between two entities may also be an element of dominance. The EU Common Court docket dominated in France Telecom that Wanadoo’s ‘link-up’ with France Télécom (HDFC Restricted and HDFC Financial institution in our context) gave it such benefits over its opponents that it contributed to its dominance. Equally, the link-up between HDFC Restricted and HDFC Financial institution would supply sure strategic advantages to HDFC Financial institution within the housing mortgage section (which might be substantiated within the following part), thereby contributing to dominance. If the CCI is apprehensive that ‘link-up’ as an element will not be coated below any clauses in S. 19(4), they will learn the identical below S. 19(4)(m), because it permits the authority to think about every other issue if the scenario requires.

All these cumulative components taken collectively, HDFC Financial institution, will be thought to be a dominant participant within the related market.


Abuse of dominant place happens when an enterprise makes use of its dominant place in a single related market to enter or defend a dominant place in one other related market. The enterprise could also be dominant in a single market however not in one other, but it surely makes use of its dominance to affect competitors within the latter. That conduct within the non-dominated market is an abuse of its dominant market place. It assumes a hyperlink between the dominant place and the abusive conduct, which isn’t often current when conducting in a market distinct from the dominant market impacts the distinct market.

The merger of HDFC Restricted and HDFC Financial institution will alter credit score composition within the banking sector, rising house loans to one-fifth of complete financial institution credit score. HDFC Financial institution will have the ability to increase its housing mortgage portfolio as a result of impregnated merger. The housing mortgage market is on the verge of a robust upswing, bolstered by the appearance of the actual property sector, providing a steady, secured asset class with very engaging risk-adapted returns. This can enhance HDFC Financial institution’s steadiness sheet dimension, permitting it to underwrite giant ticket-size loans within the housing mortgage section.

Regardless of being a banking big, HDFC Financial institution had a minuscule market share of two% available in the market for house loans. That’s set to alter now because the merger will present HDFC Financial institution with a novel alternative to leverage its community of branches in rural and semi-urban markets (roughly 50% of the branches are located in these areas). The Financial institution has an enormous pool of low-cost funds obtainable, and by using the experience of HDFC Restricted, it will likely be in a position to provide housing mortgage merchandise at a a lot lesser price than its opponents. Underneath the federal government’s reasonably priced housing initiatives, HDFC Restricted is a major participant in house loans to center and low-income teams. With the merger, HDFC Financial institution may faucet into such a market and provide cheaper house loans, using the pool of low-cost funds. This will probably be a traditional case of HDFC Financial institution leveraging its dominance to enter the housing mortgage market with assistance from the merger. This might level to HDFC Financial institution’s potential means to affect the complete housing mortgage market to the detriment of different opponents.

Not solely would the merger allow HDFC Financial institution to cement its place within the housing mortgage section, however it might additionally increase the Financial institution’s buyer base. Research have proven that 70% of the purchasers of HDFC Restricted would not have a banking relationship with HDFC Financial institution. Nevertheless, with the assistance of the merger, the financial institution would now have the ability to cross-sell its banking merchandise to the purchasers of HDFC Restricted as nicely, which is able to strengthen its buyer base finally, on the expense of different opponents.


Based on RBI information, retail loans are the first supply of mortgage development for the mortgage market, rising 14% yearly, whereas company loans have decreased 4% yearly. Market regulators just like the Competitors Fee of India (CCI) ought to be extra vigilant in detecting anti-competitive conduct in such rising markets. The impugned merger is at present awaiting the approval of the CCI. Whereas deliberating whether or not the merger ought to be authorised, CCI should undertake an impact-based evaluation. HDFC Restricted was a large within the housing mortgage trade, and so is HDFC Financial institution within the banking sector. When two giants merge, there will probably be ripples, and CCI ought to be cautious sufficient to determine them in order that the market is protected.

(Tapamoy Ghose is a legislation undergraduate pursuing from Nationwide College of Superior Authorized Research, Kochi. He could also be contacted by way of mail at [email protected]).

Cite as: Tapamoy Ghose‘HDFC Financial institution and HDFC Ltd Merger: A Competitors Regulation Scrutiny’ (The Rmlnlu Regulation Overview Weblog07 October 2022) date of entry.

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